科技论文词汇与语法

虽然大家的学科领域不同,但起承转合的论文写作逻辑套路是共通的,掌握了这些高频词汇和短语,了解了提示文章逻辑的连接词,又掌握了文章论述中惯用的表达方式,一定能帮您在SCI论文写作过程中更轻松容易,提高写作效率。

i.e.等

论文常用词汇i.e.,e.g.,etc.,viz.,et al.的前世今生

i.e.是id est(“that is” , "in other words"。进一步解释用,意为:也就是)的缩写。目的是用来进一步解释前面所说的观点(不像后文的e.g.那样引入实例来形象化),意思是“那就是说,换句话说”。它后面最好紧跟着一个逗号,再跟一个解释。(看大量例句,发现有些句子的确省略了逗号,见例句1和例句2)

例句1:Each of these items are actionable, i. e. you can actually do them.
例句2:The film is only open to adults, i.e. people over 18.
例句3:And you have to cross reference this time/effort analysis to the results (i.e., the bugs) that the effort yielded.

e.g.是exempli gratia("for example; for instance;such as"。举例用,意为:例如)的缩写,其目的用若干例子来让前面说法更具体,更易感知。在使用中,最好把e.g.连同它的例子放在括号中,如例句2。

例句1: I like sports, e.g., football.
例句2:I like most of sports activities (e.g., football).

i.e.和e.g.的区别:

例句1:I like to eat boardwalk food, i.e., funnel cake and french fries.
例句2:I like to eat boardwalk food, e.g., funnel cake and french fries.

例句1表示只有 funnel cake and french fries这两种boardwalk食物,而且这两种我都喜欢。例句2表示我喜欢boardwalk食物,比如 funnel cake and french fries;但是诸如snow cones and corn dogs等其他类型,我也可能喜欢。

etc.是et cetera(“and so forth; and the others; and other things; and the rest; and so on"。举例用,意为:等等)的缩写。它放在列表的最后,表示前面的例子还没列举完,最后加个词“等等”。

etc.前面要有逗号。一般不要在e.g.的列表最后用etc( 在including后的列表后也不宜使用etc)。这是因为 e.g. 表示泛泛的举几个例子,并没有囊括所有的实例,其中就已经包含“等等”,如果再加一个 etc. 就多余了。

例句1: I need to go to the store and buy some pie, milk, cheese, etc.

viz.是videlicet( "namely", "towit", "precisely", "that is to say"。进一步解释用,意为:即)的缩写,与e.g.不同,viz位于同位列表之前,要把它前面单词所包含的项目全部列出。

例句1:The school offers two modules in Teaching English as a Foreign Language, viz. Principles and Methods of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics.(该校提供两个模块用于英语作为外语的教学,即语言教学的原理方法和应用语言学。)
例句2: In this paper, a new TDNN architecture with two input variable, viz. wave form and its phase difference, is developed to reduce the grain noise.(本文提出了一种新的TDNN结构用于降低粗晶材料结构噪声,该结构具有波形及其相位差组成的双变量输入。)

et al.是et alia("and others; and co-workers"。在引用文献作者时用,意为:等其他人)的缩写。它几乎都是在列文献作者时使用,即把主要作者列出后,其它作者全放在et al. 里面。

et al.的前面不要逗号。人的场合用et al,而无生命的场合用etc.(et cetera)。

例句1: These results agree with the ones published by Pelon et al. (2002).
例句2: Clegg et al. (1995) explain that in the electronics industry linear-programming models can be used to analyse the viability of the recovered parts in remanufacturing.(克莱格等人(1995)解释说,电子行业的线性规划模型可以用来分析在再制造过程中回收零部件的可行性。)


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